Accelerometer Principle

An accelerometer is a device that measures the vibration, or acceleration of motion of a structure. The force caused by vibration or a change in motion (acceleration) causes the mass to “squeeze” the piezoelectric material which produces an electrical charge that is proportional to the force exerted upon it. Since the charge is proportional to the force, and the mass is a constant, then the charge is also proportional to the acceleration.

There are two types of piezoelectric accelerometers (vibration sensors). The first type is a “high impedance” charge output accelerometer. In this type of accelerometer the piezoelectric crystal produces an electrical charge which is connected directly to the measurement instruments. This type of accelerometer is also used in high temperature applications (>120C) where low impedance models cannot be used.

The second type of accelerometer is a low impedance output accelerometer. A low impedance accelerometer has a charge accelerometer as its front end but has a tiny built-in micro-circuit and FET transistor that converts that charge into a low impedance voltage that can easily interface with standard instrumentation.