 # Analog Modulation

Amplitude Modulation (AM)
In AM transmission, the carrier signal is modulated so that its amplitude varies with the changing amplitudes of the modulating signal. The frequency and phase of the carrier remain the same; only the amplitude changes to follow variations in the information.
AM is normally implemented by using a simple multiplier because the amplitude of the carrier signal needs to be changed according to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

AM Bandwidth
The modulation creates a bandwidth that is twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal and covers a range centered on the carrier frequency. However, the signal components above and below the carrier frequency carry exactly the same information. For this reason, some The bandwidth of an audio signal (speech and music) is usually 5 kHz. Therefore, an AM radio station needs a bandwidth of 10 kHz. In fact, the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) allows 10 kHz for each AM station.
AM stations are allowed carrier frequencies anywhere between 530 and 1700 kHz (1.7 MHz). However, each station’s carrier frequency must be separated from those on either side of it by at least 10 kHz (one AM bandwidth) to avoid interference. If one station uses a carrier frequency of 1100 kHz, the next station’s carrier frequency cannot be lower than 1110 kHz implementations discard one-half of the signals and cut the bandwidth in half.

Frequency Modulation (FM)
In FM transmission, the frequency of the carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of the modulating signal. The peak amplitude and phase of the carrier signal remain constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the frequency of the carrier changes correspondingly. Figure shows the relationships of the modulating signal, the carrier signal, and the resultant FM signal.
FM is normally implemented by using a voltage-controlled oscillator as with FSK. The frequency of the oscillator changes according to the input voltage which is the amplitude of the modulating signal.

FM Bandwidth
The actual bandwidth is difficult to determine exactly, but it can be shown empirically that it is several times that of the analog signal or 2(1 + β)B where β is a factor that depends on modulation technique with a common value of 4.
The bandwidth of an audio signal (speech and music) broadcast in stereo is almost 15 kHz. The FCC allows 200 kHz (0.2 MHz) for each station. This mean β = 4 with some extra guard band. FM stations are allowed carrier frequencies anywhere between 88 and 108 MHz. Stations must be separated by at least 200 kHz to keep their bandwidths from overlapping. To create even more privacy, the FCC requires that in a given area, only alternate bandwidth allocations may be used. The others remain unused to prevent any possibility of two stations interfering with each other. Given 88 to 108 MHz as a range, there are 100 potential FM bandwidths in an area, of which 50 can operate at any one time.

Phase Modulation (PM)
In PM transmission, the phase of the carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level (amplitude) of the modulating signal. The peak amplitude and frequency of the carrier signal remain constant, but as the amplitude of the information signal changes, the phase of the carrier changes correspondingly. It can be proved mathematically that PM is the same as FM with one difference. In FM, the instantaneous change in the carrier frequency is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal; in PM the instantaneous change in the carrier frequency is proportional to the derivative of the amplitude of the modulating signal.
PM is normally implemented by using a voltage-controlled oscillator along with a derivative. The frequency of the oscillator changes according to the derivative of the input voltage, which is the amplitude of the modulating signal.

PM Bandwidth
The actual bandwidth is difficult to determine exactly, but it can be shown empirically that it is several times that of the analog signal. Although the formula shows the same bandwidth for FM and PM, the value of β is lower in the case of PM (around 1 for narrow band and 3 for wideband).

Source:Fourozan

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