Valves can be broadly categorized based on the type of stem movement – linear or rotary type.
Globe Valves: Globe valves are most commonly used liner stem motion type control valves. The flow control for this type of valves is achieved by motion of a plug as shown in the following figure. The shape and type of the plus also determines the valve flow characteristics.
Gate valve: Gate valves use linear type of stem motion for opening and closing of valve. These valves use discs as closure member, as can be seen in the following figure. The faces of this disc can be either parallel or the disc can be wedge shaped.
Butterfly Valves: Butterfly valves are known for their compact size and low initial costs, which is primarily due to the small wafer and body size of these valves and the simplicity of this design. This valve belongs to the rotary stem motion type of valves.
Ball Valves: These valves use a spherical shaped closure member with a cylindrical bore through the member for passage of flow. This spherical closure member has to be rotated by 90 degrees to bring the valve from fully closed position to fully open position. This type gets the name from the shape of the closure member. If the diameter of the cylindrical bore is same as that of the connecting pipe, the valve is known as full bore valve. If this diameter is less than that of the connecting pipe, the valve is known venturi style valve. These valves rotary stem motion.