The stator of a split-phase induction motor is provided with an auxiliary or starting winding S in addition to the main or running winding M. The starting winding is located 90° electrical from the main winding and operates only during the brief period when the motor starts up. The two windings are so resigned that the starting winding S has a high resistance and relatively small reactance while the main winding M has relatively low resistance and large reactance as shown in the schematic connections in Fig. Consequently, the currents flowing in the two windings have reasonable phase difference c (25° to 30°)
When the two stator windings are energized from a single-phase supply, the main winding carries current Im while the starting winding carries current Is. Since main winding is made highly inductive while the starting winding highly resistive, the currents Im and Is have a reasonable phase angle a (25° to 30°) between them as shown in Fig. Consequently, a weak revolving field approximating to that of a 2-phase machine is produced which starts the motor. where k is a constant whose magnitude depends upon the design of the motor.
When the motor reaches about 75% of synchronous speed, the centrifugal switch opens the circuit of the starting winding. The motor then operates as a single-phase induction motor and continues to accelerate till it reaches the normal speed. The normal speed of the motor is below the synchronous speed and depends upon the load on the motor