How do the PID parameters affect system dynamics?


4 major characteristics of the closed-loop step response.

  1. Rise Time: the time it takes for the plant output y to rise beyond 90% of the desired level for the first time.

  2. Overshoot: how much the the peak level is higher than the steady state, normalized against the steady state.

  3. Settling Time: the time it takes for the system to converge to its steady state.

  4. Steady-state Error: the difference between the steadystate output and the desired output.