How does contactor and relay works?


A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a relatively small electric current that can turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of a relay is an electromagnet (a coil of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when electricity flows through it)

As contactors are used for high-current load applications they are designed to control and reduce the arc produced when the heavy motor currents are interrupted. Other than the low current contacts, they are also setup with Normally Open contacts. These are devices which handle more than 20 Amperes current and over 100 Kilo Watts power.

The contactor has an AC/DC supply driven coil input. This will depend on the requirement. This coil will mostly be controlled by a lower voltage PLC. They can also be controlled by the motor voltage. The motor may have series of coils connected to either control the acceleration or even the resistance.

When current is passed through the contactor, the electromagnet starts to build up, producing a magnetic field. Thus the core of the contactor starts to wind up. This process helps in energizing the moving contact. Thus the moving and fixed contacts make a short circuit. Thus the current is passed through them to the next circuit. The armature coil brings in high current in the initial position. This reduces as soon as the metal core enters the coil. When the current is stopped, the coil gets de-energized and thus the contacts get open circuited.