Instrumentation is a branch of physics which deals with the measuring and controlling variables in a process industry, the instruments related to the process variables and its calibration.
Some of the industrial process variables are Level, Pressure, Temperature, Humidity, Flow, pH, Force, Speed etc,. The technology which used to design and develop an instrument for the measurement and control is called instrumentation technology.
Definition: Instrumentation is defined as “the art and science of measurement and control”.
An instrument is a device that measures and regulates the process variables such as flow, pressure, temperature, level, or pH.Instruments are classified in to mechanical instruments and electronic instruments.
In the early years the process industry field uses mechanical devices for the measurement and control. At that time process indicators and control elements such as valves were monitored by an operator that walked around the unit, by adjusting the valves to obtain the desired process variables.
After the boom of electronics all mechanical instruments give the way to electronic equipments.The transformation of instrumentation from mechanical pneumatic transmitters, controllers, and valves to electronic instruments reduced the maintenance costs the systems used for measurements & control in the process industry field. This also increased the efficiency, and production due to their increase in accuracy.
The progress of the field in industry took place largely in the 1930’s after the invention of the reliable instrument to record the temperature. With the growth of the continuous manufacturing and 24 hrs working in the process industries, the need for continues measurements and automatic controls became necessity.
There are continuous demands for the improvements in the quality of measurement, control and for the development of new methods based on newly found laws and its effects in the electrical, mechanical fields.
Aim of Instrumentation: - To obtain maximum production (quality products) from the industry with the minimum usage of raw materials.