How D.P. transmitter can be applied to close tank?
In closed tank, bottom of the tank is connected to the high pressure side of the transmitter. Top of tank is connected to the lower pressure side of the transmitter. In this way vessel pressure can be measured.
How D.P. transmitter can be applied to open tank?
In open tank the lower pressure side is vented to the atmosphere. All pressure is applied to the high pressure side. This vessel pressure is measured through high pressure side.
Explain the working of an electronic level troll.
The variation in level of buoyancy resulting from a change in liquid level varies the net weight of the displacer increasing or decreasing the load on the torque arm. This change is directly proportional to change in level and specific gravity of the liquid. The resulting torque tube movement varies the angular motion of the rotor in RVDT providing a rotor change proportional to the rotor displacement, which is converted and amplified to a D.C. current.
Explain the working of an enraf level gauge.
Enraf level gauge is based on the ser powered null balance technique. A displacer serves as continuous level sensing element. A two phase ser motor controlled by a capacitive balance system winds unwinds the the measuring wire until the tension in the weight springs is in balance with the weight of the displaced part immersed in the liquid. The sensing system in balance measures the two capacitance formed by the moving central sensing rod provided by the two capacitor plates and the si plates.
What is the constant voltage unit?
The constant voltage circuit consists of a rectifier, CR and a filter capacitor. It is followed by two stages of zener regulation. Abridge configuration is provided to lamp line voltage zener regulation. Regulation 1 and regulation 2 provides relatively provide constant current. Resistors form a bridge that may remoment line voltage effects.
Explain the burnout feature.
Burnout provides the warnsug feature of driving indicator at the end of scale, if the input circuit is open. A burnout resistor is provided which develops a voltage drop between the measuring circuit and amplifier. The polarity of the signal determines the direction of the servo drive upon an open circuit in the input.
Upscale burnout: R value 10 M
Downscale burnout: R value 22 M
Why thermo wells are used? What materials are used in thermo wells?
In numerous applications, it is neither desirable nor practical to expose a temperature sensor directly to a material. Wells are therefore used to protect against damage corresion, arosion, aborsion and high pressure processes. A thermo well is also useful in protecting a sensor from physical damage during handling and normal operations.
Materials used in thermo wells: Stainless steel, Inconel, Monel, Alloy Steel, Hastelloy
How is automatic reference junction compensation carried out in temperature recorders?
In automatic reference junction compensation, variable nickel resistor is used. As the temperature changes, so does its resistance. This reference junction compensator is located, so that it will be at the temperature of the reference junction. The reference junction is at the poset where the dissimilar wire of the thermocouple is rejoined. This joint is invariably at the terminal strip of the instrument.
What are de-saturators?
When, in some processes, e.g. batch processes, long transient responses are expected during which a sustained deviation is present the controller integral action continuously drives the output to a minimum or maximum value. This phenomenon is called ‘integral saturation of the control unit’. When this condition is met, then this unit is de-saturated.
Explain the working of Rota meter.
Variable area meters are special form of head meters. Where in the area of flow restrictor is varied. So as to hold the differential pressure constant. The rota meter consists of a vertical tapered tube through which the metered fluid flows in upward direction. As the flow varies the ‘float’ rises or falls to vary the area of the passages that the differential across it balances the gravitational force on the ‘float’. The differential pressure is maintained constant. The position of the ‘float’ is the measure of the rate of flow.
What is the working principle of the magnetic meter?
An electric potential is developed when a conductor is moved across the magnetic field. In most electrical machinery the conductor is a wire. The principle is equally applicable to a moving, electrically conductive liquid. The primary device of commercial magnetic meters consist of straight cylindrical electrically insulated tube with a pair of electrodes nearly flush with the tube walls and located at opposite end of a tube diameter. This device is limited to electrically conducting liquids. The magnetic meter is particularly suited to measurement of slurries and dirty fluids.
Explain the mechanism behind the turbine meter.
Turbine meters consist of straight flow tube within which a turbine or fan is free to rotate about it s axis which is fixed along g the centre line of the tube. Mostly, a magnetic pick up system senses the rotation of the rotor through the tube walls. The turbine meter is a flow rate device
, since the rotor speed is directly proportional to the flow rate. The output is usually in the form of electric pulses from the magnetic pick up with a frequency proportional to the flow rate.
How would you choose differential range?
The most common range for differential range for liquid measurement is 0-100. This range is high enough to minimize the errors caused by unequal heads in the seal chambers. It is also dependent on the differences in the temperature of the load lines. The 100 range permits an increased in capacity up to 400. While decrease down up to 20 by merely changing the range tubes or range adjustments.