The goal of the tutorial is for you to learn about the PID controller and a few basic tuning rules of it.
After taking this lesson, you will be able to

relate PID controller parameters to step response characteristics of the controlled system, and

apply the famous ZieglerNichols tuning method to come up with an initial set of working PID parameters for an unknown system.
What is a PID controller?
A PID controller is a simple threeterm controller.
The letters P, I and D stand for:
P  Proportional
I  Integral
D  Derivative
Why learn the PID controller?
Because PID Controllers are everywhere! Due to its simplicity and excellent if not optimal performance in many applications, PID controllers are used in more than 95% of closedloop industrial processes.
It can be tuned by operators without extensive background in Controls, unlike many other modern controllers that are much more complex but often provide only marginal improvement. In fact, most PID controllers are tuned onsite.
How do the PID parameters aﬀect system dynamics?
We are most interested in four major characteristics of the closedloop step response. They are

Rise Time: the time it takes for the plant output y to rise beyond 90% of the desired level for the ﬁrst time.

Overshoot: how much the the peak level is higher than the steady state, normalized against the steady state.

Settling Time: the time it takes for the system to converge to its steady state.

Steadystate Error: the diﬀerence between the steadystate output and the desired output.
How do the PID parameters aﬀect system dynamics?
The eﬀects of increasing each of the controller parameters Kp , Ki and Kd can be summarized as
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PID Controller Tuning.pdf (255.8 KB)