Explanation of PLC controller input and output lines has up to now been given only theoretically. In order to apply this knowledge, we need to make it a little more specific.
Example can be connection of external device such as proximity sensor. Sensor outputs can be different depending on a sensor itself and also on a particular application.
Following pictures display some examples of sensor outputs and their connection with a PLC controller. Sensor output actually marks the size of a signal given by a sensor at its output when this sensor is active. In one case this is +V (supply voltage, usually 12 or 24V) and in other case a GND (0V).
Another thing worth mentioning is that sinking-sourcing and sourcing - sinking pairing is always used, and not sourcing-sourcing or sinking-sinking pairing.
If we were to make type of connection more specific, we’d get combinations as in following pictures (for more specific connection schemas we need to know the exact sensor model and a PLC controller model).