Positive Displacement Pump Working Principle

Positive-displacement pumps operate by forcing a fixed volume of fluid from the inlet pressure section of the pump into the discharge zone of the pump. There are three types of positive-displacement pumps: reciprocating, metering, and rotary pumps.

These pumps generally tend to be larger than equal-capacity dynamic pumps. Positive-displacement pumps are frequently used in hydraulic systems at pressures ranging up to 5000 pounds per square inch (psi).

A principal advantage of hydraulic power is the high power density (power per unit weight) that can be achieved. They also provide a fixed displacement per revolution and, within mechanical limitations, infinite pressure to move fluids.

Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines . However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate.

A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is severely damaged, or both.

A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. The internal valve is usually used only as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.