Thermal Power Plant Questions and Answers
Q:List the factors to be considered while choosing a site for steam power station:
1.Supply of fuel
2.Availability of water
4.Cost and type of land
5.Nearness to load centres
6.Distance from populated area
Q: Explain the working of thermal power plant.
It uses coal as the primary fuel to boil the water available to superheated steam for driving the steam turbine. The steam turbine is then mechanically coupled to an alternator rotor, the rotation of which results in the generation of electric power.
Q.Why the preparation of coal is necessary?
The coal from coal nines cannot be directly fed into the furnace. Proper preparation of coal should be done before feeding the coal to the furnace. In the coal preparation, the coal passes through the different equipments like 1.Crushers 2. Sizers 3. Driers and Magnetic Separators.
Q:What is superheater?
A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam
Q: What is an Economizer?
An economizer is a mechanical device which is used as a heat exchanger by preheating water by recovering residual heat from the flue gases in thermal power plant.
Q: what is efficiency of thermal power plant?
|Installed plant capacity||Average overall thermal efficiency|
|1MW to 10MW||12%|
|10MW to 50MW||16%|
|50MW to 100MW||24%|
Q: What is the function of Air preheater?
Air pre heater is used to transfer heat from the flue gases to the air before it passes into the furnace for combustion thereby increasing the thermal efficiency of the process.
Q: Name the four major circuits in steam power plant.
• Coal and ash circuit
• Air and flue gas circuit
• Feed water and steam circuit
• Cooling water circuit
Q: What consists of air and flue gas circuit?
Air and flue gas circuit consists of forced draught fan, air-pre-heater, boiler, furnace,
super heater, economizer, dust collector, induced draught fan and chimney.
Q: What consists of feed water and steam flow circuit in steam power?
The feed water and steam flow circuit consists of feed pump, economizer boiler drum
super heater, turbine and condenser.
Q: What consists of cooling water circuit and coal & ash circuit in steam power plant?
The cooling water circuit consists of a pump, condenser and cooling tower. The coal and
ash circuit consists of coal delivery, preparation of coal, handling of coal to the boiler furnace,
ash handling and ash storage.
Q:What is meant by cooling Towers?
It is a tower or building like device in which atmospheric air circulates in direct or
indirect contact with warmer water and water is thereby cooled. Cooling towers may
either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid
Q:List the types of super heaters:
- Radiant super heater- absorb heat by radiation
- Convention super heater-absorb heat via a fluid
- Separately fixed super heaters- it is totally separated from the boiler
Q.What are different types of Steam boilers used in Thermal Power Plants?
Different type of boiler used in thermal power plants are:
Fire tube boiler
Water tube boiler
Natural Circulation boiler
Forced Circulation boiler
Once through boiler
Q. What is the working principle of Cooling Towers?
The hot water is sprayed from the top of the tower, while the air is made to flow from the bottom of the tower to the top. This air cools the hot water in the cooling tower. Air vaporises a small percentage of water, there by cooling the remaining water. The air absorbs the heat and leaves at the top of the tower and cooled water leaves at the bottom and recirculated to the condenser.
Q.Define draught, what is the use of draught in thermal power plants?
Draught is defined as a small pressure difference required between the fuel bed (furnace) and outside air to maintain constant flow of air and to discharge the gases through chimney to the atmosphere. Draught can be obtained by chimney, fan, steam jet (or) ‑air jet (or) combination of these.
The uses are
· To supply required quantity of air to the furnace for combustion of fuel.
· To draw the combustion products through the system.
· To remove burnt products from the system
Q. Write about classification of draught?
Draught is classified as
1. Natural draught 2. Artificial draught
HYDRO POWER PLANT QUESTION AND ANSWER
Q:List the types of hydro power plants based on availability of head;
- High head power plant(head>100m)
- Medium head power plant(30m-100m)
- Low head power plants(head<30m)
Q:What are the essential elements of hydro power plant?
- Catchment area
- Surge tanks
- Draft tubes
- Power house
- Switched for transmission of power
Q:What is meant by catchment area and explain its function:
The whole area behind the dam is called the catchment area. The rain water in the area will be drained into the dam through a dam or river.
Q: What is the main purpose of the reservoir?
The main purpose of reservoir is to store water received from catchments areas during the
rainy seasons and supply the same during the dry season.
Q: What is the main purpose of the dam?
The main purpose of the dam is to increase the height of water level and also to increase
the working head of the hydraulic power plant.
Q: Why trash rack is used?
The trash rack is used to prevent the entry of debris, which might damage the turbine runners and chock up the nozzle of impulse turbine.
Q: What is the use of surge tank?
The surge tank is used to provide better regulation of water pressure in the system. The
surge tank controls the water when the load on the turbine decreases and supplies water when the load on the turbine increases. Thus, surge tank controls the pressure variations resulting from the rapid changes in water flow in penstock and hence prevents water hammer.
Q:What is the function of Fore bay?
Fore bay is considered as naturally provided surge tank. It is temporary water storage when the load on the plant is reduced and provides water for initial increment on increasing load.
Q: Explain about penstock?
The pipe between surge tank and prime mover is known as penstock. It is designed to
withstand high pressure. It is made up of reinforced concrete. In very cold areas, the penstock is buried to prevent ice formation and to reduce the expansion joints.
Q: What is the use of spill Ways?
Spillway is like a safety valve of the dam. It discharges major flood without damaging the
dam. It keeps the reservoir level below the maximum level allowed.
Q: Write about prime movers?
Prime mover converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy to produce
electrical energy. Pelton wheel turbine, Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine and Propeller turbine are prime movers used in hydraulic power plants.
Q:What is power house?
A power house is a stable structure which houses the equipment in the power plant
Q:What is meant by pumped storage power plant?
The pumped storage plants are used for load balancing. During peak load water is
used to work on turbines to produce electricity. Water after working in turbines is stored
in the tail race reservoir.
Q:Explain reaction turbine in terms of head:
High head- Francis
Medium head- Propeller
Low head- Kaplan
NUCLEAR POWER PLANT QUESTION AND ANSWER
Q: Name the different components of nuclear reactor?
- Nuclear fuel 2. Moderator 3. Control rods
- Reflectors 5. Reactor vessel 6. Biological shielding
Q.Which is the nuclear fuel used ?
The commonly used fuels are Uranium, Plutonium or Thorium. It can be U-235, U-238, Pu-236 or Th-232. Uranium is mostly preferred as it has high melting point.
Q.what is function of Moderator in nuclear reactor?
The moderator is a material which slows down the speed of the neutrons. The moderator is
usually made from water but some reactors use graphite also.Neutrons released from the chain reaction must be moving properly for other atoms of uranium to capture them.If the neutrons are moving too fast then they do not get captured by the nucleus of another uranium atom and the chain reaction stops. The moderator slows the neutrons down so that they can be captured and keep the chain reaction going.
Q:Define water as moderator.
Neutrons from fission have very high speeds and must slowed greatly by water moderation to maintain the chain reaction.
Q. What is the function of control rod in nuclear reactor?
These rods absorb neutrons and stop the chain reaction to proceed further… Some control rods are made from an alloy of silver and cadmium. Some are made from boron mixed with iron or carbon. The control rods are very good at absorbing neutrons. They reduce the number of neutrons available to continue the chain reaction. The control rods can be moved up and down inside the reactor core. As they are lifted up and out of the reactor, the less neutrons they absorb, the faster the chain reaction happens and the reactor gets hotter. The heat is then used to generate electricity. The further down
the control rods go, the more neutrons they absorb, the slower the chain reaction happens and the reactor gets colder.The control rods can used to shut the reactor down completely.
Q.What is the function of shielding?
Shielding prevents radiations to reach outside the reactor. Lead blocks and concrete enclosure that is strong enough of several meters thickness are used for shielding.
Q.What is the function of coolant?
Heat is absorbed by the coolant that is produced in the reactor. Typical coolants are water, carbon dioxide gas or liquid sodium.
GAS AND DIESEL POWER PLANT QUESTION AND ANSWER
Q:What are the working fluids in gas turbine?
Q:List the various types of diesel plants.
Based on number of strokes:
(a) Two stroke diesel engine
(b) Four srtoke diesel engine
Based on orientation:
(a) Horizontal diesel engine
(b) Vertical diesel engine
Based on number of cylinders:
(a) single cylinder
(b) Multi cylinder
And other type like naturally aspirated, superheated etc.,
Q: List the components of diesel power plant.
Air intake system
Starting of engine
Q: List any four applications of diesel power plant.
Used as peak load plants
Suitable for mobile plants
Used as standby units
Used as emergency plant
Posted by riddhi choksi
Q: What is a Transformer?
A: A transformer is a static device which can transfer power from one circuit to another at same frequency.
Q: How Does a Transformer Work?
A: Transformer consists of two coils.If one coil is connected with ac voltage source then it will produce alternating flux in the core. Most of the flux is linked with second coil hence mutually induced emf will produce in the second coil as per faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
Q: Can DC be applied to transformers ?
i) Transformer works on Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction for which current in coil must change. If DC is applied current will not change and transformer will not work.
ii) Practically winding resistance is very small. For DC ,inductive reactance is zero and frequency is zero. Therefore impedance is low. Thus winding draws more current which may damage the winding.
Q: Give symbolic representation of transformer.
Q: What are the various types of Transformers?
Based on supply
1.Single phase transformer
2.Three phase transformer
Based on winding
1.Auto transformer (single winding)
2.Two winding transformer
Three winding transformer
Six winding transformer
Based on construction
Core Type transformer
Shell Type transformer
Based on the service
Based on measurement
Based on cooling
Dry type Transformer
Oil immersed type transformer
Based on function
- Step up transformer
2.Step down transformer
Q:What is single and three phase transformer?
The transformer which works on single phase is called single phase transformer.
The transformer which works on three phase is called three phase transformer.
Q: What is Auto-transformer?
In these transformer only one winding is used as primary and secondary. Also, primary and secondary are conductively coupled.
Q:What is Two winding transformer?
Two separate windings one as primary and other as secondary are used. Both windings are magnetically coupled.
Q: What is Three winding transformer?
Three windings are used each work as primary and secondary. Also primary and secondary windings are conductively couple. They are three phase auto transformer
Q:What is Six winding transformer?
Three windings in primary and three windings in secondary are used, They are three phase transformers.They are connected in either star-star, delta-delta, star delta or delta star.
Q: Distinguish between core and shell type transformer.
|Core Type Transformer||Shell type transformer|
|The core has only one magnetic circuit.||It has two magnetic circuits.|
|Core has two limbs.||Core has three limbs.|
|It has less mechanical protection to coil.||It has better mechanical protection to coil.|
|It has better cooling since more surface is exposed to atmosphere.||Cooling is not very effective.|
|Natural cooling is provided.||Natural cooling cannot provide|
|This transformer is easy to repair.||This transformer is not easy to repair.|
|The winding is surrounded considerable part of core.||Core is surrounded considerable part of winding of transformer.|
Q: What are the advantages of shell type transformer over core type transformers?
In shell type transformers the coils are well supported on the all sides and so they can withstand higher mechanical stresses developed during short circuit conditions. Also the leakage reactance will be less in shell type transformers.
Q: Where is core type and shell type construction suitable for a transformer?
Core type transformers are popular in High voltage applications like Distribution transformers, Power transformers, and obviously auto transformers. Where as, Shell type transformers are popular in Low voltage applications like transformers used in electronic circuits and power electronic converters etc
Q: What are power transformer?
Power transformer is used for the transmission purpose at heavy load, high voltage greater than 33 KV & 100% efficiency. It is big in size as compared to distribution transformer, it used in generating station and Transmission substation. It is generally rated above 200MVA.
Q: What are distribution transformer?
The distribution transformer is used for the distribution of electrical energy at low voltage as less than 33KV in industrial purpose and 440v-220v in domestic purpose. It works at low efficiency at 60-70%, small size, easy in installation, having low magnetic losses & it is not always fully loaded.
Q: Why the efficiency of distribution transformer is 60 to 70 % and not 100%?
Distribution transformer is designed for maximum efficiency at 60% to 70% load as it normally doesn’t operate at full load all the time. Its load depends on distribution demand. Whereas power transformer is designed for maximum efficiency at 100% load as it always runs at 100% load being near to generating station.
Q: What are the salient features of distribution transformer?
The distribution transformer will have low iron loss and higher value
of copper loss
The capacity of transformers will be up to 500 KVA
The transformers will have plain walled tanks or provided with cooling tubes
The leakage reactance and regulation will be low.
Q:Distinguish between power transformer and distribution transformer.
|Power Transformer||Distribution transformer|
|It is used in transmission network of higher voltages||It is used in the distribution network for lower voltages.|
|Power transformers are used for rating above 200 MVA||Distribution transformers are used for rating less than 200 MVA|
|Larger in size as compared of distribution transformers||Smaller in size|
|Designed for maximum efficiency of 100%.||Designed for 50-70% efficiency|
|Efficiency is measured as the ratio of output to the input power||Here All Day Efficiency is considered.|
|Used in generating stations and transmission substations||Used in distribution stations, also for industrial and domestic purposes.|
|Copper and iron losses take place throughout the day||Iron losses take place for 24 hours and copper losses are based on load cycle|
|load fluctuations are very less||Load fluctuations are very high|
|Always operated at full load||Operated at load less than full load as load cycle fluctuates|
|It is independent of time||It is time dependent|
|flux density is higher||flux density is lower|
Q: What are Current transformer?
They are protective devices used to measure very high value of current in power system. The Current Transformer ( C.T. ), is a type of “instrument transformer” that is designed to produce an alternating current in its secondary winding which is proportional to the current being measured in its primary
Q: What are Potential transformer?
They are protective devices used to measure very high value of voltage in power system.
Q: What are dry type transformer ?
In this type of transformer, air is used as coolant.The heat is taken to walls of tank and dissipated to the surrounding air.
Q: What is oil immersed type transformer?
In this type of transformer, oil is used as coolant. Entire assembly including core and windings is kept immersed in oil. The developed heat is transferred to the walls of tank through oil. Finally the heat is transferred to the surrounding air from tank wall by radiation.
Q: What are step up transformers?
They step up voltage from lower value to higher value.
Q: What are step down transformers?
They step up voltage from higher value to lower value.
Q: What are isolation transformers?
In this type of transformer the primary and secondary are same. When it is required to isolate the primary and secondary circuits these type of transformers are used. It protects the circuits connected in secondary side when major fault occurs in primary side.
Q: Why stepped cores are used?
(i) To reduce the space effectively.
(ii) To obtain reduced length of mean turn of the windings.
(iii) To reduce I² R loss.
Q:. What is yoke section of transformers?
The sections of the core which connect the limbs are called yoke. The yoke is used to provide a closed path for the flux.
Q:. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformer?
In order to minimize eddy current loss.
Q: Explain on the material used for core construction?
A: The core is constructed by sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a continuous magnetic path with minimum of air gap included. The steel used is of high silicon content sometimes heat treated to produce a high permeability and a low hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux densities. The eddy current loss is minimized by laminating the core, the laminations being used from each other by light coat of coreplate varnish or by oxide layer on the surface. The thickness of lamination varies from 0.35mm for a frequency of 50Hz and 0.5mm for a frequency of 25Hz.
Q: Why the cross-section of iron is less than total cross section area of core?
This is because the core is laminated & on each lamination the insulations are are used.
Q:What is Stack factor?
The ratio of total cross section of iron to the total cross section of core is called stack factor.
Q: What is the EMF equation of transformer?
Erms = 4.44 f Φ maxT volt
Q:What is voltage transformation ratio or turn ratio?
It is expressed as ratio of the primary and secondary voltages of transformer.
It is expressed as ratio of the primary and secondary turns of transformer.
E1/ E2= T1/T2 = K
Q:What is transformation ratio for step up, step down and isolation transformer?
K>1 for step up transformer
K<1 for step down transformer
K=1 for isolation transformer
Q: What are the properties of ideal transformer?
1.There should be no losses
2.The winding should have zero resistance
3.The leakage flux should be zero
- The permeability of core should be so high that the negligible current is required to establish the flux in it.
Q.What are the functions of no-load current in a transformer ?
No-load current produces flux and supplies iron loss and copper loss on no-load.
Q: Does the transformer draw any current when secondary is open ? Why ?
Yes,it (primary) will draw the current from the main supply in order to magnetize the core and to supply iron and copper losses on no load . There will not be any current in the secondary since secondary is open
Q: What are two components of no load current in transformer?
i) IM (Magnetizing/reactive /wattless) current. It magnetizes core
ii) Iw (Coreloss/ active/wattful ) current. It supplies hysteresis and eddy current loss and negligible I² R loss.
Q:How much is the no load current of transformer?
No load curent of transformer is 3 to 5% of rated current in transformer.
Q: Give equivalent resistance, reactance and impedance referred to primary circuit.
Req = R1 +R2’ = R1+a² R2’
Xeq = X1 +X2’ = X1+a² X2’
Zeq = Z1 +Z2’ = Z1+a² Z2’
Q: Give equivalent resistance, reactance and impedance referred to secondary circuit.
Req = R2 +R1’ = R2+ R1’/a²
Xeq = X2 +X1’ = X2+ X1’/a²
Zeq = Z2 + Z1’ = Z2+ Z1’/a²
Q:Why to calculate equivalent impedance referred to primary or secondary side?
Equivalent impedance is essential to be calculated because the electrical power transformer is an electric power system equipment, for estimating different parameters of electric power system which may be required to calculate total internal impedance of an electric power transformer, viewing from primary side or secondary side as per requirement. This calculation requires e quivalent circuit of transformer referred to primary or equivalent circuit of transformer referred to secondary sides respectively.
Q: What is Meant by Regulation in a Transformer?
Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no load voltage and the full load voltage.
This is usually expressed in terms of percentage. For example: A transformer delivers 100 volts at no load and the voltage drops to 95_volts at full load, the regulation would be 5%.
dry type distribution transformers generally have regulation from 2% to 4%, depending on the size and the application for which they are used.The change in secondary terminal voltage from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of no load or full load voltage istermed as regulation.
%regulation =E2-V2/E2 *100
%regulation = voltage drop in transformer/ no load voltage of transformer
V2>E2 for leading p.f load
V2<E2 for lagging p.f load
Q: What is the condition for zero voltage regulation?
Negative sign indicates zero voltage regulation. It occurs when load is capacitive and power factor is leading.
Q: What is the condition for maximum voltage regulation?
It occurs when load is inductive and power factor is lagging.
Q: What are the factors affecting voltage regulation?
Q: What is Eddy current loss in transformer?
In transformer, we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current produces alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with secondary winding, there will be induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through the load connected with it. Some of the alternating fluxes of transformer; may also link with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body of transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of transformer, there would be a locally induced emf. Due to these emfs, there would be currents which will circulate locally at that parts of the transformer. These circulating current will not contribute in output of the transformer and dissipated as heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of transformer.
Q: How to minimize Eddy current loss?
By using less thickness of laminations
By using less value of Magnetic flux density
Q: What is hysteresis loss in transformer?
The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal, there will be extra work done. For this reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of transformer.
Q: How to minimize Hysteresis loss?
By using good magnetic material.
By using less value of Magnetic flux density
Q.Why are iron losses considered as constant losses in transformer?
Iron losses depend on supply frequency and flux density in the core. For all normal operations, the frequency of flux reversals which is same as supply frequency is constant and the value of flux density more or less remains constant. Hence iron losses remain constant under all load conditions. i-e from no-load to full-load
Q:why transformers are rated in kVA ?
A:Copper loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage . Hence total losses depends on Volt- Ampere and not on the power factor. That is why the rating of transformers are in kVA and not in kW.
Q. Define efficiency of the transformer?
Transformer efficiency ƞ= (output power/input power) x 100
Q: What is the range of efficiency of transformers?
A: The efficiency of the transformer will be in the range of 94% to 99%. Among the available electrical machines the transformer has the highest efficiency
Q.Why the range of efficiency in transformers higher than those of other electrical machines?
Transformers operate at higher efficiency when compared to other electrical machines.This is due to the absence of mechanical losses which is due to the absence of moving parts
Q: What is the condition for maximum efficiency of transformer?
When Iron losses is equal to copper losses.
Q: Define all day efficiency of a transformer?
A :It is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period, usually a day of 24 hrs. All day efficiency=output in kWh/input in kWh for 24 hrs.
Q: What are the necessary tests to determine the efficiency, voltage regulation, and temperature rise of winding & insulation of transformer?
1.Direct loading test
2.Open circuit test
Short circuit test
Sumpner’s or back to back test
Q:What is determined from open circuit test?
Q.Why OC test is generally performed on LV side of a transformer?
The high-voltage side is generally kept open because the current in high-voltage winding is less compared to that on low-voltage winding.The LV side has higher current so that maximum no load current can be measured.
Q.Why SC test is generally performed on HV side of a transformer?
The rated current is less on HV side. This will also permit to use ammeter and wattmeter of lower current range.
Q:Why the open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage?
A: The open circuit on a transformer is conducted at a rated voltage because core loss depends upon the voltage. This open circuit test gives only core loss or iron loss of the transformer.
Q:What is determined from short circuit test?
Q:What is determined from Sumpner’s test?
Efficiency as well as temperature rise of winding.
Q : Why Sumpner’s test is carried out?
Loading a transformer is a very difficult thing to test. Say the transformer is rated at 300 MVA, now how to find a 300MVA load to test your transformer? Also the load will waste all of its energy to heat. Sumpner’s test allows to fully load a transformer without actually having that load. The energy lost is only equal to the losses in the transformers, nothing which the transformer cooling system cannot handle. In Sumpner’s test two transformers are connected back to back means,primaries of two transformers connected in parallel and secondaries side connected in series.
Q: What is the need for parallel operation of transformer?
-Non availability of single large transformer to meet the load
-Increased power demand
-To improve reliability
-If many smaller transformer is used one can be used as spare
-Transportation problem for large transformer.
Q: What are the conditions for parallel operation of transformer?
-Equal turn ratio
-percentage impedance should be same
-Equal X/R ratio
-Equal KVA rating
-Equal phase sequence
Q: What will happen if transformer in parallel connection have opposite polarity?
Connecting transformers with wrong polarity can result in circulating currents or short circuits
Q: What will happen if transformer in parallel connection have different voltage ratio?
Two transformers in Parallel should have the same primary and secondary voltage ratings. Any error in the voltage ratio would cause heavy circulating currents to flow between the transformers. This circulating current will result in a corresponding imbalance in the primary currents, and result in overloading of one transformer. This circulating current will result in increased copper losses.
Q: What will happen if transformer in parallel connection have different percentage impedance or X/R ratio ?
A difference in the ratio of the reactance value to resistance value of the per unit impedance results in a different phase angle of the currents carried by the two paralleled transformers; one transformer will be working with a higher power factor and the other with a lower power factor than that of the combined output. Hence, the real power will not be proportionally shared by the transformers.
Q: What will happen if transformer in parallel connection have different phase sequence ?
If the phase sequence is in an incorrect manner, in every cycle each pair of phases will get short-circuited.
Q:What are the typical uses of auto transformer ?
i) As a booster to compensate the voltage drop for better regulation
ii)As induction motor starters.
iii) In locomotive
iv) As furnace transformer
Q.List the merits of an autotransformer.
Require less conductor material
high VA rating
Better voltage regulation
small amount of no load current
Q:Compare two winding transformer with Auto Transformer
|Particulars||Two Winding Transformer||Auto Transformer|
|No. Of windings||Two windings||One winding|
|Output voltage||Fixed unless tap changer is provided||Variable voltage can be obtained|
|Volume of Copper required||More for two windings||Less because of single winding|
|Size||Larger for same rating||Small in size for same rating|
|Efficiency||Comparatively lesser||Comparatively better|
Q.Why is an auto-transformer not used as a distribution transformer?
The autotransformer cannot provide isolation between HV and LV side. Due to open circuit in the common portion, the voltage on the load side may shoot up to dangerously high voltage causing damage to equipment. This unexpected rise in the voltage on LV side is potentially dangerous. Hence the autotransformer cannot be used as distribution transformer
Q: What are the factors affecting the selection of Maximum flux density?
- Net core weight: Higher the flux density lesser net weight of core.
2.Saving in copper:Higher the flux density lesser mean turn of windings.
3.Overall economy: Higher the flux density lesser net weight of core and windings. Hence cheaper
Net weight: Due to above reasons weight is also reduced.
High magnetizing current due to higher flux density
High Flux density results in high losses
High Flux density results in high losses and hence efficiency decreases
8.Hence high temperature rise and noise
Q:What is window space factor?
It is the ratio of copper area in the window to the total window area.
Q.What is transformer bank?
A transformer bank consists of three independent single phase transformers with their primary and secondary windings connected either in star or delta.
Q: What are the advantages of three single phase transformer over three phase transformer?
Continuity of supply
Less Installation of cost
4.Stand by function
5.Unbalanced load supply
Q: What are the advantages of three phase transformer over three single phase transformer?
1.Saving in iron material
Less transformer oil
Q.What are the various types of three phase transformer connections?
The most common types of transformer connections are,
i. Star-Star (Y-Y)
iii. Star-Delta (Y-∆)
iv. Delta-Star (∆-Y)
v. Open Delta (V-V)
vi. Scott Connection (T-T)
Q:Which type of connection is used in distribution transformer?Distribution transformers are connected in delta-star. This arrangement requires 3 conductors in the high voltage side and 4 in the low voltage side, as well as it provides the star point conductor as a neutral point. This can serve single phase as well as three phase loads.
Q: Why are breathers used in transformers ?
Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture and thereby not allowing it to pass on to the transformer oil.
Also to permit the oil inside the tank to expand and contract as its temperature increases and decreases.
Also to avoid sledging of oil i.e. decomposition of oil.
Q: Why silica gel is used in breather?
The silica gel is used to absorb the moisture when the air is drawn from the atmosphere in to the transformer.
Q. What is the colour of silica gel in dry stage and when saturated with moisture in a breather?
Dry stage – Deep blue
Saturated stage – Whitish pink
Q: What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer ?
Transformer oil provides , (i)good insulation and (ii)cooling . Nowadays instead of natural mineral oil, synthetic oils known as ASKRELS (trade name ) are used. They are non-inflammable, under an electric arc do not decompose to produce inflammable gases. PYROCOLOR oil possess high dielectric strength.
Q:Mention the properties of oil used in transformers.
The following are the desirable properties of transformer oil:
–>It should be free from moisture
–> It should have high dielectric strength
–> It should have thermally stability and higher thermal conductivity
–>It should be contaminated by temperature rise.
Q: Why transformer oil is used as a cooling medium?
When transformer oil is used as a coolant the heat dissipation by convection is 10 times more than the convection due to air. Hence transformer oil is used as a cooling medium.
Q: What is conservator?
A conservator is a small cylindrical drum fitted just above the transformer main tank. It is used to allow the expansion and contraction of oil without contact with surrounding atmosphere. When conservator is fitted in a transformer, the tank is fully filled with oil and the conservator is half filled with oil.
Q: What is buchholz relay?
It protects the transformer from their internal faults like earth faults, winding short circuit, short circuit between phases, Puncture of bushing etc…
Q: Where is buchholz relay located?
It is located between transformer tank and conservator.
Q.In buchholz relay how the top and bottom mercury switches are connected?
Top mercury switch is connected for alarm and bottom switch for trip.
Q: What is the purpose of providing Taps in transformer and where these are provided?
In order to attain the required voltage, taps are provided, normally at high voltages side(low current).
Q: In transformers, why the low voltage winding is placed near the core?
The winding & Core are both made of metals and so an insulation have to be placed in between them, the thickness of insulation depends on the voltage rating of the winding. In order to reduce the insulation requirement the low voltage winding place near the core.
Q: Why the tapings are placed on HV side?
1. A fine voltage regulation is possible with hV side as it has large number of turns.
2.LV side carries large current
HV side is placed outside so its feasible
In case of step down transformer at light loads the HV side voltage increases, it is required to decrease this voltage by adjusting tappings on HV . With large no. of turns the flux and flux density decreases. Hence core losses decreases results in higher efficiency.
Q:List some methods of cooling of transformers.
A: Air natural, Air blast, Oil Natural, Oil natural air forced, Oil natural water forced, Oil forced, Oil forced air natural, Oil forced air natural, Oil forced water forced.
Q:What are the factors to be considered for choosing the method of cooling?
The choice of cooling method depends on KVA rating of transformer, size, application and the site conditions where it will be installed.
Q: How the heat dissipates in a transformer?
The heat dissipation of a transformer occurs by convection, conduction and radiation.
Q: Why cooling tubes are provided?
Cooling tubes are provided to increase the heat dissipating area of the tank.
Q: How the heat dissipation is improved by providing the cooling tubes?
The cooling tubes will improve the circulation of oil. The circulation of oil is due to effective pressure heads produced by columns of oil in tubes. The improvement in cooling is accounted by taking the specific heat dissipation due to convection as 35% more than that without tubes.
Q: How the leakage reactance of the transformer is reduced?
In transformers the leakage reactance is reduced by interleaving the high voltage and low voltage winding.
Q: How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
With a change in frequency, iron and copper loss, regulation, efficiency & heating varies so the operation of transformer is highly affected.
Q: What is the Difference Between “Insulating”, “Isolating”, and “Shielded Winding” Transformers?
Insulating and Isolating transformers are identical. These terms are used to describe the isolation of the primary and secondary windings, or insulation between the two. A shielded winding transformer, on the other hand, is designed with a metallic shield between the primary and secondary windings, providing a safety factor by grounding, thus preventing accidental contact between windings under faulty conditions. All two, three and four winding transformers are of the insulating or isolating types. Only autotransformers, which are a type whose primary and secondary are connected to each other electrically, are not of the insulating or isolating variety.
Q: Can Transformers be Operated at Voltages other than Nameplate Voltages?
In some cases, transformers can be operated at voltages below the nameplate rated voltage. In NO case should a transformer be operated at a voltage in excess of its name- plate rating unless taps are provided for this purpose. When operating below the rated voltage the KVA capacity is reduced correspondingly. For example, if a 480 volt primary trans¬former with a 240 volt secondary is operated at 240 volts, the secondary voltage is reduced to 120 volts and if the trans¬former were originally rated 10 KVA, the reduced rating would be 5 KVA, or in direct proportion to the applied voltage.
Q: What are the applications of step-up & step-down transformer?
A: Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated voltage will be either 11kV. This voltage (11kV) is stepped up to 110kV or 220kV or 400Kv and transmitted through transmission lines (simply called as sending end voltage). Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are stepped down to 11kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3phase 400V by means of a distribution transformer and made available at consumer premises. The transformers used at generating stations are called power transformers.
Q.What is the vector group of distribution transformer?
Q.What is the humming of transformer?
Humming is a sound, which is produced due to the vibration of the cores in the transformer. The vibrations are produced due to the change in polarity of an alternating current or voltage and by the loose of lamination of the core. Both can be minimised by tightening the core of the transformer.
Q: Can 60 Hz transformers be operated at 50 Hz?
The transformers rated below 1 KVA can be used on 50 Hz service. Transformers 1 KVA and larger, rated at 60 Hz, should not be used on 50 Hz service, due to the higher losses and resultant heat rise. Special designs are required for this service. However, any 50 Hz transformer will operate on a 60 Hz service.
Q:Is it Possible to Change Three Phase to Two Phase or Vice-Versa with Standard Transformers?
Yes. This is a very practical application for standard single phase off-the-shelf transformers. Some typical voltage combinations are as follows: 480 volts three phase to 240 volts two phase, or 240 volts three phase to 480 volts two phase, or 240 volts three phase to 240 volts two phase. Please refer to us for an exact schematic.
Q:List four applications of a transformer.
It can raise or lower the voltage or current in an AC circuit.
It can act as an impedance transferring device by increasing or decreasing the value of a capacitor, inductor or resistance in an AC circuit.
It can isolate two circuits electrically.
It can be used to prevent DC from passing from one circuit to another
Q:What is the cause of noise in transformer?
The cause of noise in the transformer is mainly because of magnetostriction effect and also loosening of stampings and mechanical forces produced during working.
Q:What is tertiary winding?
Some three phase transformers may have a third winding called tertiary winding apart from primary and secondary. It is also called auxiliary winding or stabilizing winding. The tertiary winding is provided in a transformer for any one of the following reasons, i) to supply small additional load at a different voltage ii) to give supply to phase compensating devices such as capacitors which work at different voltages. iii) to limit short circuit current. iv) to indicate voltage in high voltage testing transformer
Q:The area of the yoke in a transformer is taken 15 to 20% larger than that of the core. Why?
By keeping yoke area 15-20% higher ,the flux density in the yoke is reduced, resulting into reduction in iron losses for yoke. The reduced core area results working flux density and needed to increase the number of turns.
Q: Why we need isolation transformers in power circuit ? why cant we use breakers to isolate?
In Isolation transformer is used, if there is change in parameter values of any side, the other side parameters will remain unchanged.
Q:Why do transformers hum?
Transformer noise is caused by a phenomenon which causes a piece of magnetic sheet steel to extend itself when magnetized. When the magnetization is taken away, it goes back to its original condition. This phenomenon is scientifically referred to as magnetostriction. A transformer is magnetically excited by an alternating voltage and current so that it becomes extended and contracted twice during a full cycle of magnetization.
The magnetization of any given point on the sheet varies, so the extension and contraction is not uniform. A transformer core is made from many sheets of special steel to reduce losses and moderate the ensuing heating effect. The extensions and contractions are taking place erratically all over a sheet. These extensions are proportionally and therefore not normally visible to the naked eye. However, they are sufficient to cause a vibration, and consequently noise. Applying voltage to a transformer produces a magnetic flux, or magnetic lines of force in the core. The degree of flux determines the amount of magnetostriction and hence, the noise level.
Q:Why not reduce the noise in the core by reducing the amount of flux?
Transformer voltages are fixed by system requirements. The ratio of these voltages to the number of turns in the winding determines the amount of magnetization. This ratio of voltage to turns is determined mainly for economical soundness. Therefore the amount of flux at the normal voltage is fixed. This also fixes the level of noise and vibration.