Protective tripping systems provide a defence against excursions beyond the safe operating limits by detecting a excursions beyond set points related to the safe operating limits (i.e. the onset of a hazard) and taking timely action to maintain or restore the equipment under control to a safe state. Trips should not be self resetting unless adequate justification has been made. Protective interlocks prevent those control actions which might initiate a hazard from being undertaken by an operator or process control system, and are by nature self-resetting.
Protection systems should indicate that a demand to perform a safety function has been made and that the necessary actions have been performed.
Protective systems should be sufficiently independent of the control system or other protective systems (electrical/electronic or programmable). Where there is an interface between systems (e.g. for indication, monitoring or shared components) or shared utilities (e.g. power), environment (e.g. accommodation, wiring routes) or management systems (maintenance procedures, personnel), then the method of achieving independence should be defined, and common cause failures adequately considered.
Measures to defend against common mode failures due to environmental interactions may include physical separation or segregation of system elements (sensors, wiring, logic, actuators or utilities) of different protective systems.
Independence will also be required for protection against systematic and common mode faults. Measures may include use of diverse technology for different protective systems. Where more than one E/E/PES protective system is used to provide the required risk reduction for a safety function, then adequate independence should be achieved by diverse technology, construction, manufacturer or software as necessary to achieve the requires safety integrity level.
Dependence on utilities
The action required from the protective system depend upon the nature of the process. The actions may be passive in nature, such as simple isolation of plant or removal of power, or they may be active in that continued or positive action is required to maintain or restore a safe state, for example by injection of inhibitor into the process, or provision of emergency cooling.
Active protective measures have a high dependence upon utilities, and may be particularly vulnerable to common mode failures. The scope of the protective system therefore includes all utilities upon which it depends, and they should have an integrity consistent and contributory to that of the remainder of the system.
Measures taken to defend against common mode failure of utilities will be commensurate with the level of safety integrity required, but may include standby or uninterruptable/reservoir supplies for electricity, air, cooling water, or other utilities essential for performance of the safety function. Such measures should themselves be of sufficient integrity.
Survivability and external influences
The protective system should be adequately protected against environmental influences, the effects of the hazard against which it is protecting, and other hazards which may be present. Environmental influences include power system failure or characteristics, lightning (BS 6651), electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (BS 6667, IEC 61000), flammable atmospheres (BS 5345, BS EN 60079, BS 6467, BS 7535, BS EN 50281), corrosive or humid atmospheres, ingress of water or dust (BS EN 60529), temperature, rodent attack, chemical attack, vibration physical impact, and other plant hazards.
Degradation of protection against environmental influences during maintenance and testing should have been considered and appropriate measures taken. e.g. Use of radios by maintenance personnel may be prohibited during testing of a protective system with the cabinet door open where the cabinet provides protection against EMR.
Protection against random hardware faults
The architecture of the protective system should be designed to protect against random hardware failure. It should be demonstrated that the required reliability has been achieved commensurate with the require integrity level. Defensive measures may include high reliability elements, automatic diagnostic features to reveal faults, and redundancy of elements (e.g. 2 out of 3 voting for sensors) to provide fault tolerance.
Protection common mode failures
Diversity of elements is not effective for protection against random hardware faults, but is useful in defence against common mode failures within a protective system.
Protection systematic failures
Protection against systematic hardware and software failures may be achieved by appropriate safety lifecycles (see IEC 61508, Out of Control).