Passive components: The components which are passive in nature i.e. which can attenuate the input applied signal to a desired level. These are energy consumers and cannot boost the input signal. Resistors, capacitors and inductors are the examples of passive components.
Active components: The components which plays an active role in the electronic circuit i.e. which can add energy to the input signal are called active components. These can amplify the signal to the desired level. Transistors, operational amplifiers are the examples of active components.