Flow measurement

Flowrate measurements are important in control of chemical processes. Having measured flowrates of gases, liquids or vapours it is possible to evaluate mass balance of the process. Flowrate is the quantity of a substance passed through the given cross-section area in the unit of time.

There are a volumetric flowrate and mass flowrate. The first is expressed in m3/s, m3/h, cm3/s, l/s etc., while the second - in kg/s, kg/h, g/s, etc. Usually the volumetric or mass flowrates are applied to liquids (since liquids are incompressible); the mass flowrate is applied to gases and vapours (they are compressible).

Flowrate measurement is not an easy problem, since many factors such as density, viscosity, ratio of phases, temperature, pressure, etc. of the stream have influence on the results of flowrate measurements. If calibration of the device for flowrate measurement was carried out at conditions different from those when it is used in practice, then we will get inaccurate flowrate data.